What was a bushranger?
They were often violent and sometimes killed members of the public and police officers.
Because bushrangers broke rules and challenged the police, some people admired them. They might have even assisted them by giving them food and shelter.
But most people – including the police – simply thought they were dangerous criminals.1
- 1. Maryborough Chronicle, Wednesday 21 December 1864
Where did the name come from?
The word was first published in a newspaper in 1805.
So it must have already been in common use to describe criminals who operated in the country and lived in the bush.
On Tuesday last a cart was stopped between this settlement and Hawkesbury, by three men whose appearance sanctioned the suspicion of their being bush-rangers.2
The term ‘bushranger’ is unique to Australia.
Many convicts transported to NSW had been convicted of 'highway robbery'.
- 2. The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 17 February 1805 p2.
When were bushrangers active?
From the earliest days of the colony some convicts felt they would be better off running away from the settlement.
But as horses became more common, criminals would steal them for transport.
This changed the nature of how these criminals could operate, making it easier for them to rob, escape and 'range' over a larger amount of bush.
By the 1830s, bushrangers were committing a lot of crimes throughout the colony.
In response, the NSW Government passed the "Robbers and Housebreakers' Act" - also known as the 'Bushrangers Act'.
The Act was supposed to make it easier to arrest a person who was suspected of being:
- a 'transported convict' who had escaped;
- an armed robber (bushranger) on the roads;
- a person hiding or assisting a bushranger.
But the law caused problems, because innocent people (such as a man out hunting with his gun) were sometimes arrested and had to prove they were not bushrangers!5
- 5. G D Woods, A history of criminal law in New South Wales: the colonial period 1788–1900, Federation Press, Sydney, 2002, p77.
Gold rush. Crime wave!
When gold was discovered in NSW 1851, a new wave of bushranging began.
Thousands of people travelled out to the goldfields which were in isolated, rural areas.
This created an opportunity for criminals to steal gold from the miners, instead of doing the hard work of finding the gold themselves.
Bushrangers were also very active in the Victorian gold fields and reports of their crimes were often published in NSW newspapers.
- 6. Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal, 21 October 1857, p3.
The 'wild' 1860s
During the 1860s, newspapers in NSW were full of stories about bushrangers and their crimes.
The NSW police force was under a lot of pressure to fight back, and did so despite the risk to their own safety.
For example, during the 1860s:
- over 400 men were arrested and convicted of armed robbery;7
- at least 20 bushrangers were killed in shoot-outs or sentenced to death by courts;8
- 11 NSW police officers were killed by bushrangers; many others were wounded in shootouts.
In spite of the police's efforts, gangs of bushrangers continued to rob and kill people (including police officers).
So in 1865 the NSW Government passed another law, the Felons Apprehension Act.
Under this law, a person who had been declared an 'outlaw' by the courts could be shot dead without warning.9
The new law was supposed to make it easier to capture of confront violent bushrangers.
Only four bushrangers were officially declared "outlaws" in NSW during the gold rush: John Gilbert, John Dunn, Thomas Clarke and Patrick Connell.
All were either killed in shootouts with police or captured and executed for their crimes.
Bushranging comes to an end
Bushrangers became less of a threat during the 1870s and 1880s. There were a few reasons for this:
- new roads and railways made travel faster and safer;
- NSW built an electric telegraph system, which made it easier for police to track bushrangers;
- the NSW police force had become more organised, experienced and developed better tactics.
In 1879, the NSW bushranger known as Captain Moonlite was captured by police after a shootout. During the battle, a policeman was killed.
Moonlite was executed in 1880 - this was the same year in which another famous bushranger, Ned Kelly, was hanged for his crimes in Victoria.
In the years that followed, criminals still robbed people and may have hidden in the bush.
But the 'bushranging era' in Australia is considered to have finished by the 1880s.
Who were the bushrangers?
They were often good horsemen and knew how to live comfortably in the bush.
Activity: source analysis
Read these primary sources carefully and answer the questions. What do they tell you about the men who turned to bushranging?
Men would have had different reasons for turning to bushranging.
- Some, like thousands of the convicts transported to NSW, turned to crime out of desperation because of unemployment, or poverty.
- Others might have seen bushranging as a quick way to gain wealth - or even fame;10
- There were also criminals (like the bushranger Dan Morgan) who were violent offenders and had a history of criminal behaviour.
Whatever the reason, their actions could result in innocent people experiencing terror, losing property, being injured or even killed.
- 10. Maryborough Chronicle, 12 February 1868, p4.
What crimes did bushrangers commit?
Bushrangers robbed homes, farms, businesses and individuals. They stole horses (particularly race horses), gold, personal possessions (such as watches), money, mail, horse saddles, guns, ammunition, clothes and food.11
They also took advantage of people, by forcing them them to cook or provide food.
Stopping and robbing ("bailing up") a mail coach was another common crime.
Between October 1863 and October 1864, for example, at least 60 highway robberies were recorded in the colony.12
Roads were often isolated and in poor condition, so travel by horse and cart was slow. This made it easier for bushrangers to 'bail up' a mail coach and then escape into the bush with their loot.
If a gang of bushrangers wanted to bail up a mail coach, they had to be organised and know when and where to strike.
For the people they robbed, the experience could be terrifying.
How successful were they?
However, most were arrested by police soon after committing a crime.
For example, in 1864 a gang of bushrangers, including a man called John Foster, bailed up the Bathurst mail coach, as it travelled through the Blue Mountains13.
The gang made off with money and valuables – but what happened afterwards?
- a few days later Foster was arrested by police in Sydney;
- at trial he was found guilty, sentenced to ten years jail, and sent to Cockatoo Island in Sydney Harbour;
- Foster was released from prison in 1872;
- he was shot and killed soon afterwards, when he broke into a house to steal some gold.
Like Foster, many bushrangers did not have long and successful careers.
- 13. The Sydney Morning Herald, 31 March 1864, p2.
What weapons did bushrangers use?
The horses the bushrangers had with them were of first-class character and the men are reported as fairly bristling with fire-arms.15
In 1865 Ben Hall and his gang bailed up a mail coach because they knew that a passenger on board was carrying a Tranter revolving rifle.
This was the best type of rifle in NSW at that time; it could fire five bullets without reloading, which was a lot of firepower.
- 15. The Kiama Independent, 3 November 1863, p3.
What happened to bushrangers?
What is the bushrangers' legacy?
Instead, people remember their horse riding skills, their ability to survive in the Australian bush, or the fact that they challenged people in authority - such as the police.
Life in colonial NSW could be very hard, and people were not always treated fairly by the law. But most people did not use violence or turn to crime as a result.
Bushrangers have left a complicated legacy - what do you think?
Were they heroes or were they villains?
Activities for students:
Stage 3 | The Australian Colonies
History | Creative Arts | English
Creative Arts activity: drawing
English activity: comprehension
English activity: writing